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O nce a we e kf or4 we e ks C M H S , ild and d ole sce nt M e ntalH e alth S e rvice s; S C ild and d ole sce nt S tructure d ompe te ncie s pproach to D iabe te s d ucation; T, cog nitive be h aviouralth e rapy care co- ord ination; W communityh e alth worke r YP , ch ild re nand young pe ople ; T, d iale cticalbe h aviourth e rapy M , d e pre ssioncare manag e r M , d ise ase manag e me nt; acilitate d A sth ma C ommunicationI nitiative ; I V R inte ractive voice re sponse ; P A S C T, P rimaryand S e cond aryC ontrolE nh ance me nt Training P C P , primarycare provid e rQ& que stionand answe r DOI: 10. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 153 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. APPENDIX 8 Risk of bias Baseline Study (first author and year of sample Unit of Random Allocation publication) Design (n) allocation allocation concealment Esposito-Smythers et al. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 155 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 157 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. E conom ica na se s: qua it Q e s ion S d y ( fi hor nd ye a ofp b lica ion) b b b b b c A th e rlye t l B utz e t l and W alke re t l B yf ord e t l and arring ton e t l 1 B yf ord e t l and ood ye re t l 2 B yf ord e t l and owe rs e t l and C ars we lle t l C ris tie e t l C icutto e t l D omino e t l and M arch e t l and and th e T re atme nt f orA d ole s ce nts with e pre s s ion S tud yT e am, 2 D oug e rtye t l and E d ward s e t l and utch ing s e t l 2 F lore s e t l F os te re t l S wans on e t l W e lls e t l M olina e t l Je ns e n e t l and th e M T A C oope rative roup, G albre ath e t l G re e n e t l H e d e ros e t l and Jos e ph e t l Q e s ion S d y ( fi hor nd ye a ofp b lica ion) b b b b b c Kattan e t l and M or an e t l 2 Le wis e t l Lynch e t l s arnow e t l and re nt e t l M untz e t l and utch ing s e t l 2 N e t l O e ille t l and M cG illowaye t l 2 R und e t l R ung e e t l S ch mid t e t l S outh am e row e t l S taab e t l S te ve ns e t l S ullivan e t l and vans e t l 1 S vore n e t l V an d e W ie le t l W e is z e t l W ille ms e t l and Xu e t l ✗ no; not applicable ; ye s. N ot e T h e numbe rs in th e table ce lls re f e rto ans we rs cod e d bye conomic ch e cklis t re quire me nts ( s e e p p e nd ix 2 E conom ica na se s: sum m r ove rvie w S d y ( fi hor O u com e s e p or e d a nd ye a of op l ion e r p e ct i e nd im e ( incl d ing Rs nd hor concl ion/ p b lica ion) e t ing I nt e r e nt ion nd com p ion hor izon O u com e s nd cos nce r int y) d d iiona lcom m e nt A th e rlye t l U S A I mple me ntation of as th ma S ocie tal3 month s ang e in s ymptom- f re e ost of th e inte rve ntion T h e inte rve ntion is prog ramme vs. QoLpare nts as th ma colouring books , pe akf low inte rve ntion vs. I nte rve ntiond id not C ild re nag e d practice ps ych os ocialf unctioning inte rve ntion £4 improve lycae miccontrol 8 ye ars with os t of th e inte rve ntion and it costs more th ancurre nt type d iabe te s S practice. 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T h e auth ors conclud e th at inte rve ntion is not cos t- e f f e ctive , as th e y s ayth os e are f e w d ays s ave d Jos e ph e t l U S A M ultime d ia we b- bas e d as th ma e alth - care s ys te m umbe rof s ymptoms d ays QoL and cos t M ore pos itive be h aviours of manag e me nt prog ram vs. U rban A f rican- e ne ric as th ma we bs ite s d e live ry oe s not compare cos ts A me rican youth be twe e n tre ate d and ag e d ye ars non- tre ate d S d y ( fi hor O u com e s e p or e d a nd ye a of op l ion e r p e ct i e nd im e ( incl d ing Rs nd hor concl ion/ p b lica ion) e t ing I nt e r e nt ion nd com p ion hor izon O u com e s nd cos nce r int y) d d iiona lcom m e nt Kattan e t l U S A ome e nvironme ntalalle r e n e alth care M aximum numbe rof d ays s and acce ptability T h e inte rve ntion is and M or an e t l as th ma inte rve ntion vs. T h e inte rve ntion mi t not be cos t- e f f e ctive f rom a h e alth - care point of vie w, but it is f rom a s ocie tal pe rs pe ctive Le wis e t l U S A T re atme nt of f e re d in s mall umbe rof vis its to O V ( covariance s ) e d uctions on th e numbe r g roups vs. T h e n, th e inte ns e tre atme nt d oe s not s i nif icantlyd i f f e rf rom th e s tand ard tre atme nt N e t l ong Kong I nte ns ive as th ma e d ucation umbe rof vis its to th e M e d ians pplying th e inte rve ntion prog ramme vs. T h e 1 ye ars with os ts of tre atme nt: inte rve ntion is s ucce s s f ul s ch izoph re nia inpatie nt tre atme nt, ome O nly1 patie nts in e ve ry vis its , cons ultations with roup, s o re s ults cannot be d octors , s ocialwe lf are e ne ralis e d to th e wh ole s e rvice cos ts and s e minars population f orpare nts S d y ( fi hor O u com e s e p or e d a nd ye a of op l ion e r p e ct i e nd im e ( incl d ing Rs nd hor concl ion/ p b lica ion) e t ing I nt e r e nt ion nd com p ion hor izon O u com e s nd cos nce r int y) d d iiona lcom m e nt R ung e e t l e rmany I nte rne t- bas e d e d ucation e alth care and U tilis ation of s e ve ralh e alth e ne f it cos t ratio and U tilisationof e alth - care prog ramme vs. T e alth care bs tine nce f rom bing e M e an cos t comparis ons T as ad vantag e s as a 2 e ating and vomiting os t f amilyth e rapyas it A d ole s ce nts with of tre atme nts d e cre as e s bing ing and it h as bulimia ne rvos a or a lowe rcos t e ating d is ord e rs S outh am e row U S A T vs. T h e s tud ywas bas e d 8 ye ars with and me d ication in a s malls ample. T h e re anxie ty( C aucas ian, we re no d i f f e re nce s in cos ts Latino, f rican- be twe e n inte rve ntion and A me rican) control S taab e t l e rmany I nte rve ntion e d ucational S e ve rityof e cze ma, oe f f icie nts f rom O utcome s we re improve d prog ramme vs. T h e inte rve ntion is more cos t- e f f e ctive in ch ild re n with as th ma s e ve rity S vore n e t l U S A are ambas s ad or care e alth care umbe rof me d ical M e ans and S D s stimate d annualcost saving s ambas s ad orand vis its , f re que ncyof of U S $ wh e n Youth s ag e d ps ych oe d ucationalmod ule s vs.
H wang C quality viagra sublingual 100 mg erectile dysfunction pills cialis, Sinskey A order viagra sublingual 100 mg fast delivery impotence 19 year old, Lodish H : O xidized redox state of glutathione Characterization and localization. Gaut J, H endershot L: The m odification and assem bly of proteins in junction plaque protein. Canfield PE, Geerdes AM , M olitoris BA: Effect of reversible ATP 65. Bole DG, H endershot LM , Kearny JF: Posttranslational association of depletion on tight-junction integrity in LLC-PK1 cells. Am J Physiol im m unoglobulin heavy chain binding protein with nascent heavy 1991, 261:F1038–F1045. Rodriguez-Boulan E, N elson W J: M orphogenesis of the polarized 102:1558–1566. Gething M J, M cCam m on K, Sam brook J: Expression of wild-type 44. Balda M S, Gonzalez-M ariscal L, Contreras RG, et al. Dorner AJ, Bole DG, Kaufm an RJ: The relationship of N -linked gly- 1991, 122:193–202. N g DT, Randall RE, Lam b RA: Intracellular m aturation and transport 107:507–515. Dodane V, Kachar B: Identification of isoform s of G proteins and and transient association with GRP78-BiP in the endoplasm ic reticu- PKC that colocalize with tight junctions. J M em brane Biol 1996, lum and extensive internalization from the cell surface. Acute Renal Failure: Cellular Features of Injury and Repair 16. Rothm an JE: Polypeptide chain binding proteins: catalysts of protein 93. Sakurai H , N igam SK: TGF- selectively inhibits branching m orpho- folding and related processes in cells. Blount P, M erlie JP: BIP associates with newly synthesized subunits of 94. J Cell Biol 1991, system using cell lines derived from the em bryonic kidney shows 113:1125–1132. M elnick J, Aviel S, Argon Y: The endoplasm ic reticulum stress protein USA 1997, 94:6279–6284. GRP94, in addition to BiP, associates with unassem bled im m unoglob- 95. Barasch J, Pressler L, Connor J, M alik A: A ureteric bud cell line ulin chains. Pind S, Riordan J, W illiam s D: Participation of the endoplasm ic retic- Physiol 1996, 271:F50–F61. J Biol Chem 1994, and the c-M et receptor tyrosine kinase is responsible for epithelial 269:12784–12788. Kuznetsov G, Chen L, N igam S: M ultiple m olecular chaperones com - 97. Schaudies RP, Johnson JP: Increased soluble EGF after ischem ia is University Press; 1987. Brenner BM : Determ inants of epithelial differentiation during early Am J Physiol 1993, 264:F523–F531. N igam SK, Aperia A, Brenner BM : Developm ent and m aturation of growth factor in the rat kidney. M ontesano R, Schaller G, O rci L: Induction of epithelial tubular m or- epiderm al growth factor-like growth factor m RN A in rat kidney after phogenesis in vitro by fibroblast-derived soluble factors. M etejka GL, Jennische E: IGF-I binding and IGF-I m RN A expression 78. M ontesano R, M atsum oto K, N akam ura T, O rci L: Identification of a in the post-ischem ic regenerating rat kidney. Kidney Int 1992, fibroblast-derived epithelial m orphogen as hepatocyte growth factor. Santos O FP, N igam SK: H GF-induced tubulogenesis and branching of kidney dam age: a possible paracrine m echanism for tubule repair. Kawaida K, M atsum oto K, Shim azu H , N akam ura T: H epatocyte 80.
The foregoing study involving Pachinko players (67) found alterations in T cells (decreased number Few neuroimaging studies directly investigating PG have of T cells and decreased CD3-56 activity) and natural killer been performed to date order viagra sublingual 100 mg on-line erectile dysfunction vacuum pump medicare. One study investigated the poten- cells (increased number of natural killer cells without change tial role of the MCL DA system in a study in which partici- in activity) viagra sublingual 100mg erectile dysfunction at the age of 30. A separate study of male and female Kimberley pants were paid increasing amounts of money depending aborigines found significantly higher cortisol levels on days on the skill level reached while playing a video game (90, in which gambling behavior was concentrated (Thursdays 98). Positron emission tomography (PET) studies using 11 and Fridays) as compared with temporally distinct days C-labeled raclopride, a ligand with high affinity for D2- (Mondays and Tuesdays) (80). Significantly higher epi- like DA receptors (D2Rs), found decreased levels of striatal nephrine levels were also found on the gambling-con- binding in eight male study subjects playing a tank video centrated days, a finding further implicating adrenergic game as compared with when they viewed a gray screen function in gambling behaviors. The authors concluded that the observed 13% Chapter 120: Pathologic Gambling and Impulse Control Disorders 1729 reduction in [su>11C]raclopride signal during the gaming cision-making processes (102). Individuals with substance condition is consistent with at least a twofold increase in use disorders also have demonstrated impaired performance levels of extracellular DA. Because the game involved in- on the Iowa Gambling Task (103–105), and poor perfor- creasing monetary reward associated with each skill level mance has been shown to correlate with decreased blood reached during the video game, the paradigm is similar but flow measurements to the VM in cocaine-dependent sub- not identical to actual gambling. The extent to which dysfunction of the An independent study investigated for specific DA and VM, amygdala, or other brain regions involved in regulation 5-HT abnormalities in individuals with PG (91). Using of emotion and decision making may be involved in the PET, the researchers found decreased striatal binding in pathophysiology of PG remains to be explored more com- PG subjects of [11C]N-methylspiperone, a ligand with high pletely. The striatal signal, corresponding to D2R-receptor occu- Genetics pancy, could be explained by multiple, non–mutually ex- clusive possibilities including decreased numbers of avail- Twin studies investigating disordered gambling behaviors able D2Rs, decreased affinity of D2Rs for the tracer, or have been published (107,108). One study observed signifi- increased synaptic concentrations of DA. PG subjects were cantly greater rates of similarities in male monozygotic as also found to have impaired performance on multiple neu- compared with male dizygotic twins with regard to partici- rocognitive tests, including the Halstead-Reitan, Wisconsin pation in past-year high-action forms of gambling (e. No differ- gional cerebral blood flow to the frontal cortex and anterior ences were observed in the two groups of males with regard cingulate was found to be significantly lower in PG as com- to measures of low action forms of gambling or in female pared with healthy subjects during performance of an audi- monozygotic versus dizygotic groups with regard to past- tory continuous performance attention task. These findings year participation in either high- or low-action forms gam- are consistent with prior studies implicating involvement of bling. A larger study used the monozygotic (n 1,869 the frontal cortex and anterior cingulate in attention (93), pairs) and dizygotic (n 1490 pairs) twins who served in among other processes, and suggest a role for these brain the military in the Vietnam War era on whom questions regions in mediating attentional deficits in individuals with pertaining to PG from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule PG (35). The authors found in- Multiple neuroimaging studies into the neural bases of herited factors to contribute between 35% and 54% of the drug use disorders have been performed. Studies of drug liability for each of the five individual PG-related factors. The results are comparable ies investigating whether similar brain regions may be in- to findings derived from the same sample for the heritability volved in PG are under way, with preliminary data suggest- of drug use disorders, with 34% and 28% of the variance ing the involvement of parallel neural activities (96,97). The findings are consistent with the notion that developed and used in investigations into decision making genetic influence significantly affects the risk of developing (98–101). The tool involves four piles of cards, each associ- PG. Selection from two of the piles, each associated with have been performed (110–115). Investigations described lower rewards and lower punishments, will ultimately result to date have been association studies exploring the involve- in long-term gains, and selection from the other two piles ment of genes related to NE, 5-HT, and DA systems. Without prior instruction first of these studies investigated a role for the D2A1 allele of into the reward and punishment profile of each pile, individ- the D2R, an allele previously reported by the same research uals are instructed to select from the piles and to maximize group to be implicated in such compulsive-addictive behav- gains. Interestingly, individuals with stroke lesions in either iors as drug abuse, cocaine abuse, and compulsive eating the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VM) or amygdala per- and smoking (116,117). In a group of 171 whites with PG, form worse than healthy subjects on the task (100,101). Additionally, gambling severity was found to corre- exhibit changes in skin conductance associated with the de- late with an increased likelihood of carrying the D2A1 allele, 1730 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress and the group of individuals without compared with those receptor individually in groups with PG or Tourette syn- with a history of a major depressive episode were more likely drome (112). The multiple genetic findings implicating do- to carry the D2A1 allele (110). This latter finding suggests paminergic genes in PG lend further support for a role for that differences in underlying motivations for gambling and DA in PG. Comings and colleagues also investigated associations of One report did not find a statistically significant association PG with polymorphic variants of the D1, D3, and D4 re- between PG and allelic variants of the tryptophan 2,3-diox- ceptors (111,112,115). The authors found the frequency of ygenase gene, whose gene product regulates 5-HT metabo- the Dde I allele of the D1 receptor (D1R) to be significantly lism (112).
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