By T. Snorre. Washington Bible College / Capital Bible Seminary.
Whenan- while TH2 cells are required for B-cell activation tigen binding occurs without co-stimulation (e discount cialis soft 20mg otc impotence mayo clinic. The TcellcanreceiveAPCdualsignals fromin- fected macrophages or B cells buy discount cialis soft 20 mg on line erectile dysfunction ear, provided their Specific Immunity: Humoral Immune Responses receptors have bound the antigen in question Humoral immunity arise from B cells (! The Numerous IgD and IgM monomers anchored APCdualsignalinducestheTcelltoexpressin- onto the B-cell surface bind with the respec- terleukin-2 (IL-2) and to bind the respective IL- tive antigen (dissolved IgM occurs in pen- 2 receptor (! However, B-cell activation requires a sec- for organ transplantation, can be achieved ond signal, which can come directly from a with IL-2 inhibitors like cyclosporin A. These cells no longer require costimulation and express a different type of adhe- HLA-II-restricted TD antigen to the TH2 cell sionmolecule(VLA-4insteadofL-selectins)bywhich (! If the CD4-associated T-cell receptor theynowdockontotheendotheliumofinflamedtis- (TCR) of the TH2 cell recognizes the antigen, sues (rather than to lymphatic tissue like their naïve CD40 ligands are expressed on the TH2 surface precursors). The CD40 ligand and ing (CD8 )+ T cells after HLA-I-restricted an- IL-4 (later also IL-5 and IL-6) stimulate the B tigen presentation (! Endogenous an- cell to undergo clonal selection, IgM secretion, tigenpresentationoccurswhentheHLA-Ipro- and differentiation into plasma cells (! In this manner, IgM is con- I-restricted antigens on (virus) infected en- vertedintoIgA,IgGorIgE(! AllIgtypes dogenous cells and tumor cells as well as on arisingfromagivenB-cellcloneremainmono- cells of transplanted organs. The plasma cells drives the cells into apoptosis (programmed formed after class switching produce only a 98 single type of Ig. Binding of the Fas lig- Despopoulos, Color Atlas of Physiology © 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. Specific immunity: B-cell activation B lymphocytes Antigen binding B cell Activation IgD, IgM monomer Antibody “Naive” network B cell Internalization 1 TH2 cell Processing (see plateB3) HLAII Cooperation of TH2cell and B cell TH2cell B cell TD HLAII CD4 antigen T-cell receptor Presentation CD40 ligand CD40 IL-4 2 IL-5 IL-6 Proliferation Plasma cell 3 Differentiation According to class switching Immun- IgM globulins IgG IgA IgE Specific humoral immune response 99 (see plateA) Despopoulos, Color Atlas of Physiology © 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. This leads to the Hypersensitivity Reactions (Allergies) development of serum sickness (! B), the main Allergy is a specific, exaggerated immune re- symptoms of which are joint pain and fever. Small molecules toms peak 2 to 4 days after antigen contact, conjugated to endogenous proteins can also this is called delayed type hypersensitivity. Contact der- contact with an antigen induces sensitization matitis is also a type IV reaction caused by (allergization), and subsequent exposure leads various haptens (e. Thiscanalsoresultindamagetoendog- Blood Groups enous proteins and autoantibody production. In the AB0 system, the antigens are A Types of hypersensitivity reactions: Type I andB(! On first contact, the al- anti-B antibody (in serum) are present; in type B, B lergen internalized by B cells is presented to and anti-A are present; in type AB, A and B are pres- TH2cells. TheBcellthenproliferatesanddiffer- ent, no antibody; in type 0 (zero), no antigen but entiates into plasma cells (see p. The Fc fragment When giving a blood transfusion, it is important that the blood groups of donor and recipient match, ofIgEbindstomastcellsandbasophils. A)donotcomein sequent contact, the antigens bind to the al- contact with the respective antibodies (e. Donorandrecipientbloodtypesmustthere- (PAF), an immediate reaction (anaphylaxis) oc- fore be determined and cross-matched (! Since AB0 antibodies belong to the IgM class, they usually do not cross the type hypersensitivity. The va- tigens (C, D, E) on RBCs do not develop unless prior sodilatory effect of a generalized type I reac- sensitization has occurred. ApersonisRh-positive(Rh+)whenDispres- In type II reactions, the immune system ent on their RBCs (most people), and Rh-negative (Rh ) when D is absent. Rh– individuals the erythrocytes of the wrong blood group or can form anti-Rh+ (=anti-D) antibodies, e.
A computed tomography showed resolution of hepatic new elevation in serum transaminases provided the and splenic abscesses buy cheap cialis soft 20mg on-line erectile dysfunction drugs in pakistan. He was discharged home af- clue that led to abdominal imaging and the detec- ter a 2- month hospitalization cheap cialis soft 20mg without prescription erectile dysfunction treatment testosterone replacement. The diag- nosis of chronic disseminated candidiasis is often ANSWER: Chronic disseminated candidiasis (he- not conﬁrmed by blood culture; the yield of blood patosplenic candidiasis) occurs in patients with pro- cultures in the detection of candidemia is poor, with found neutropenia. This patient was appropriately up to 50% of blood cultures falsely negative in this treated for possible fungal sepsis when antibacterial setting. Chronic disseminated candidiasis in neu- therapy failed to resolve fever in the setting of neu- tropenic leukemia patients is a life-threatening in- tropenia. Although some of these diseases are endemic to the United States Amebiasis and Balantidial Dysentery or can be found in migrant workers or individuals re- turning from an endemic area, many other such infec- The protozoan Entamoeba histolytica causes amebiasis, tions are rarely seen in the United States. However, an infection that is endemic in parts of the United physicians should be aware of these diseases and seek States. The parasite can be present in the host as either advice from those experienced in their diagnosis and an encysted or a trophozoite form. The latter symptom occurs assumed or known modes of action of a number of the after invasion of the intestinal mucosa by the actively agents. The treatment of malaria is discussed at the end motile and phagocytic trophozoite form of the proto- of this chapter. More recently, it has been The ﬂagellate leishmania is transmitted to humans by recognized that infection can be transmitted by sexual the bite of the female sandﬂy of the genus Phlebotomus. Three principal diseases result from infection with Balantidium coli is the largest of the protozoans that Leishmania spp. The trophozoite causes superﬁcial necrosis or leishmaniasis, the protozoan parasitizes the reticuloen- deep ulceration in the mucosa and submucosa of the dothelial cells, and this results in an enlargement of the large intestine. Otherwise healthy persons commonly lymph nodes, liver, and spleen; the spleen can become exhibit nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, massive. Cutaneous leishmaniasis remains localized to whereas debilitated or nutritionally stressed patients the site of inoculation, where it forms a raised disﬁguring may develop severe dysentery. It is characterized by ulceration of the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, and phar- Trichomoniasis and Giardiasis ynx; some disﬁguring skin involvement also is possible. Trichomoniasis is a genital infection produced by the African trypanosomiasis follows the bite of Glos- protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Infections frequently sina, a tsetse ﬂy infected with the protozoan Trypano- are asymptomatic in the male, whereas in the female soma brucei. The ensuing illness (sleeping sickness)is vaginitis characterized by a frothy pale yellow discharge initially characterized by the hemolymphatic stage of is common. This latter more 608 VI CHEMOTHERAPY serious stage requires different, more potentially toxic excreted by the kidneys, although small amounts can be drugs than does the hemolymphatic stage. Metronidazole is active against intestinal quite different from African trypanosomiasis in its clin- and extraintestinal cysts and trophozoites. Metronidazole Metronidazole (Flagyl, Metrogel) exerts activity against Adverse Effects most anaerobic bacteria and several protozoa. The drug The most frequently observed adverse reactions to freely penetrates protozoal and bacterial cells but not metronidazole include nausea, vomiting, cramps, diar- mammalian cells. The enzyme, pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreduc- paresthesias, peripheral neuropathy, encephalopathy, tase, found only in anaerobic organisms, reduces and neutropenia have been reported. Reduced zole is a weak inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, alco- metronidazole disrupts replication and transcription hol ingestion should be avoided during treatment. Metronidazole interferes with the metabolism of warfarin and may po- Antimicrobial Spectrum tentiate its anticoagulant activity. The drug is not gate anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative bacte- recommended for use during pregnancy. Drug resistance is Iodoquinol infrequent; the mechanism of resistance is not under- Iodoquinol (diiodohydroxyquin, Yodoxin, Moebiquin) stood.
T Dopam ine 3 T Q uantitatively purchase cialis soft 20mg without a prescription insulin pump erectile dysfunction, dopam ine is the m ost im portant of the biogenic am ine neurotransm itters in the CNS buy generic cialis soft 20mg line erectile dysfunction medication for diabetes. The three 4 m ajor distinct dopam inergic system s in the m am m alian brain are categorized according to the lengths of the T 7 T neurons. There is a system com prising ultrashort neu- 8 T T T TM rons within am acrine cells of the retina and peri- glom erular cells in the olfactory bulb. O f the several 5 interm ediate-length dopam inergic neuronal system s, the 6 best studied are neurons in the tuberobasal ventral hy- pothalam us that innervate the m edian em inence and the FIG U R E 24. The im portant in the regulation of various hypothalam ohy- steps are depicted for a typical neurotransmitter (T). Some pophysial functions, including prolactin release from the neurotransmitters do not follow this scheme. The best-categorized of the dopam ine action potential; site 2, synthesis of T from T ; site 3, neuronal system s are the long projections from nuclei in storage of T in vesicles; site 4, release of T in response to the substantia nigra and ventral tegm ental areas to the the action potential; site 5, binding of T to receptor; site 6, lim bic cortex; other lim bic structures, including the intracellular response to action of T at site 5; site 7, am ygdaloid com plex and piriform cortex; and the neo- reuptake of T across neuronal membrane; site 8, striatum (prim arily the caudate and putam en). In general, dopam ine appears to be an in- function continually to slow the num ber of action po- hibitory neurotransm itter. The effects of stim ulating an excita- have been identiﬁed; the m ost im portant and best stud- tory pathway can appear to be exaggerated if norm al in- ied are the D 1-and D 2-receptor groups. The D 2-receptor de- creases cA M P, blocks certain calcium channels, and opens certain potassium channels. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM NEUROTRANSM ITTERS Norepinephrine A large num ber of CNS neurotransm itters have been M ost central noradrenergic neurons are located in the either tentatively or positively identiﬁed. W hile a de- nucleus locus ceruleus of the pons and in neurons of tailed discussion of the various central neurotransm it- the reticular form ation. Fibers from these nuclei inner- ters and the criteria for their identiﬁcation is beyond the vate a large num ber of cortical, subcortical, and spino- scope of this text, a sum m ary of the m ost im portant m edullary ﬁelds. The m am - tonin are present in all of the cells containing this am ine m alian CNS contains both - and -adrenoceptors. Serotonin is initially oxidatively deam i- nated to form 5-hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde; this com - Epinephrine pound is subsequently rapidly oxidized to the m ajor m etabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, which is excreted Epinephrine is found only in very low concentrations in in the urine. M uch of the serotonin released in the brain the m am m alian CNS, and it is unlikely to play a m ajor at synapses is taken back into the initial neuron by an ac- role as a neurotransm itter. Serotonin Actions and Site of Actions Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5HT) is present in M ost of the serotonin in the brain is in the brainstem, the brain as well as in the periphery. In humans, about speciﬁcally in the raphe nuclei; considerable am ounts 90% of the total serotonin in the body is in enterochro- also are present in areas of the hypothalam us, the lim - mafﬁn cells in the gastrointestinal tract; the remaining bic system, and the pituitary gland. The dicates that serotonin is involved in the regulation of physiological signiﬁcance of the vast amounts of sero- several aspects of behavior, including sleep, pain per- tonin constantly synthesized and metabolized in the pe- ception, depression, sexual activity, and aggressiveness. Brain serotonin has been Som e of the m ost im portant antidepressant agents are implicated as a potential neurotransmitter in the media- believed to prevent the reuptake of serotonin (see tion of a wide variety of phenomena (see A ctions). Serotonin also m ay be involved in tem per- ature regulation and in the hypothalam ic control of the Synthesis and Fate release of pituitary horm ones. D ietary tryptophan is the source of the form ation of In addition to its presum ed role as a neurotransm it- serotonin. Enzym es and cofactors necessary for sero- ter within the brain, serotonin is synthesized in the tonin synthesis are present in both the enterochrom af- pineal gland, where it is a precursor for the synthesis of ﬁn cells of the gastrointestinal tract and neurons in the m elatonin, a horm one that inﬂuences endocrine activ- brain. Tryptophan is initially hydroxylated to form 5- ity, presum ably by an action within the hypothalam us. D ecarboxylation of the latter com - The m am m alian brain appears to have an abun- pound results in the form ation of serotonin (Fig. Fourteen Tryptophan hydroxylase CH2 CH COOH HO CH2 CH COOH N NH2 N NH2 Tryptophan 5-Hydroxytryptophan L-Amino acid Monoamine decarboxylase oxidase HO CH2 CH2 NH2 HO CH2 CHO N N Serotonin 5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde Aldehyde dehydrogenase HO CH2 COOH N 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid FIG U R E 24. There are at least ﬁve subtypes G A BA B-receptor, in contrast, is not m odulated by ben- of the 5-H T1 subset and three receptor subtypes for the zodiazepines, is not linked to chloride m ovem ent, and is 5-H T2 subset. The interested reader m ay explore the not nearly as well characterized as is the G A BA A -re- various subsets and subtypes in the work by H oyer et al. Am ino Acid Neurotransm itters Glycine A large num ber of am ino acids serve as neurotransm it- G lycine is another inhibitory CNS neurotransm itter.
In should avoid the supplement because it has not been ade- opposition to traditional medicine cheap cialis soft 20 mg with amex erectile dysfunction drugs sublingual, the Law of Infinitesi- quately tested for safety cheap 20 mg cialis soft mastercard erectile dysfunction foods that help. To achieve a low dose, the curative is diluted Resources many, many times until only a tiny amount, if any, re- mains in a huge amount of the diluting liquid. According to some Amy Cooper homeopathic practitioners, ledum is said to take away Teresa G. Originally prescribed by a holistic veterinarian in Connecticut to treat the symp- Ledum toms of Lyme disease in horses, dogs, and cats, ledum in the 1M potency is now recommended by some alterna- Description tive practitioners as a treatment for Lyme disease in hu- Ledum is an evergreen shrub, Ledum palustre. There are several anecdotal reports of its success plant grows wild in Canada, northern Europe, and the in treating this painful disease. It has narrow, dark, aromatic leaves with hairy or used as a diagnostic tool to indicate what remedy will be wooly undersides. Symptoms that benefit from treatment used primarily in homeopathic healing, but have also with ledum get worse with warmth and are also worse at been used in Native American and Russian folk medicine. During the American Revolution when the British Homeopathy also ascribes certain personality types imposed a tax on imported tea, the American colonists to certain remedies. The ledum personality is said to be 1198 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 discontented and self-pitying. People with the ledum continue to work through an effect called potentization personality may be irritable, angry, impatient, worried, that has not yet been explained by mainstream scientists. People in need of ledum often As an infusion for treating respiratory distress and have restless, disturbed sleep marked by bad dreams. Both these cultures use decoctions or infusions of ledum to Precautions treat coughs, bronchitis, and bronchial asthma. Accord- ing to historical records, the famous Swedish botanist Puncture wounds from rusty nails, needles, animal Karl Linneaus (1707–1778) was the first to record using bites, and similar implements can be serious and may re- ledum for sore throats and coughs. When treating puncture wounds with ledum, patients should make sure their tetanus immu- In addition, Russian folk medicine uses ledum mixed nizations are current, monitor their healing, and seek tra- with butter to make an ointment that is applied externally ditional medical help at the first sign of infection. Used externally, it is believed to People who bruise very easily should consult a act as an antibiotic and an anti-fungal to reduce infection. Mainstream medical researchers have studied ledum within the field of environmental medicine. Some Russ- ian animal studies from the mid-1990s indicated that Side effects ledum offers some protection against radiation damage Ledum taken in the standard homeopathic dilutions to the digestive system and the formation of red blood has not been reported to cause side effects. A Canadian study completed in the summer of from ledum has been safely taken for centuries. Ledum is also being studied for its beneficial effects Interactions when eaten as a vegetable. A 2002 report from the Studies of interactions between ledum and conven- School of Pharmacy at the University of London states tional pharmaceuticals are nonexistent. The Complete Guide to For homeopathic remedies, the dried plant material is Homeopathy. The Best Alternative Medicine,Part are two homeopathic dilution scales, the decimal (x) scale I: Homeopathy. Dosage depends on Activity of Non-Cultivated Vegetables of Ethnic Albani- the symptoms being treated. Antioxidants—Enzymes that bind with free radi- cals to neutralize their harmful effects on living General use tissue. Ledum appears to be a rich source of an- Lemon balm is a soothing, sedative herb that can re- tioxidants. An infusion of this cit- Decoction—Decoctions are made by simmering rus-scented herb will improve digestion, reduce fever, an herb, then straining the solid material out. The plant has anti- Lyme disease—A chronic, recurrent inflammatory histaminic properties and helps with allergies. Lemon disease carried by deer ticks and caused by a balm infusions, taken hot, will induce sweating. It is a helpful herb in cases of hyperthyroid activity, palpitations of the ORGANIZATIONS Foundation for Homeopathic Education and Research. Box 7, Ed- digestion, relieve flatulence, and colic, and can ease one monds, WA 98020. Fairfax Street, Suite cold sore eruptions (herpes simplex), and treat sores and 306, Alexandria, VA 22314.
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