By E. Yokian. University of Memphis. 2018.
The key determinant of extracellular half-lives of both 5-azacytidine and decitabine is cytidine deaminase (CDA) discount 100mg aldactone mastercard pulse pressure 14, an Mechanisms and lessons #4 enzyme that rapidly deaminates these drugs to uracil base moiety An important difference in the pharmacology of decitabine counterparts aldactone 25mg amex blood pressure medication that causes hair loss. The clinical relevance of CDA is illustrated as and 5-azacytidine. Although patient numbers were small, these follows: the half-life of decitabine in buffer in vitro at 37°C is 10 responses highlight that relapse/resistance may not reﬂect out- hours; in contrast, the half-life in vivo is 10 minutes, a drastic growth of malignant clones that withstand DNMT1 depletion, but reduction largely attributable to CDA. CDA expression and enzyme outgrowth of malignant cells that have never experienced the activity are signiﬁcantly higher in males and thus could contribute to pharmacodynamic effect of DNMT1 depletion in the ﬁrst place. Therefore, the fraction of the are 2 reasons to individualize drug dosage and schedule by malignant clone in S-phase and the intracellular half-life of the drug measurements of pharmacodynamic effect and response. Critical determinants of intracellu- How I treat lar half-lives are different for decitabine versus 5-azacytidine: For obvious reasons, hematologists-oncologists are conditioned to decitabine accumulates in cells because phosphorylation by deoxy- suppress malignant clones. In approaching MDS, however, this cytidine kinase (DCK) traps the drug in cells (DCK also determines mindset must be slightly modiﬁed. Suppression of malignant clones Hematology 2013 515 Figure 1. In cell lines representative of the histologic and genetic diversity of cancer (NCI60), the rate-limiting enzymes that determine the intracellular half-lives of decitabine and 5-azacytidine, DCK and UCK respectively, predicted drug sensitivity. Drug sensitivity is represented as GI50: the drug concentration causing 50% growth reduction. The higher the GI50, the less sensitive to drug, quantiﬁed by measurement of total protein at day 6 (raw data downloaded from the National Cancer Institute [http://dtp. Decitabine GI50 did not correlate with UCK2 expression (data not shown). The overall purpose of has contracted the normal stem cell pool (last-man-standing MDS1,2; therapy is to halt and reverse a decline in one or more blood counts, Mechanisms #2). Primary immune-mediated pathophysiology should and a contraction in the functional hematopoietic stem cell pool be considered in younger patients with morphologic MDS without could well be contributory. Fortunately, binuria clones can be detected or who are positive for HLA-DR15,31 5-azacytidine and decitabine, which are FDA approved for all and alternative treatments to consider in these patients include subtypes of MDS, facilitate such consideration. Equipped with an aplastic anemia type immunomodulation. There might also be appreciation of their mechanism of action, the individual practitio- ethnic predispositions to immune-mediated BM failure manifesting ner can comfortably and effectively apply these drugs. Further, in east Asian countries, there is more patients in whom the primary pathophysiology is microenvironmen- MDS without an increase in myeloblasts occurring in younger tal alterations (eg, immune-mediated BM failure) or damage that individuals, whereas in the west, there is more MDS with increased 516 American Society of Hematology Figure 2. Expression levels of UCK and DCK inversely correlate in primary AML cells (n 178, gene expression measured by RNA sequencing, raw data from The Cancer Genome Atlas). There is a concern that these drugs versus clonal suppression therapy for a particular MDS case: it is could equally promote malignant clones; perhaps one method to most important to recognize that these different primary biologies of address this concern is to use combinations with 5-azacytidine or disease can operate, and are associated with, particular demographic decitabine (see “Next steps”). Armed with this understanding of pathophysiol- ogy, practitioners can better assess the likelihood of aggressive For thorough reviews regarding the role of other cytokines (eg, clonal versus last-man-standing MDS and select therapy accordingly. Unfortunately, these drugs (like many new hematol- pattern of response suggests that patient selection based on particu- ogy-oncology drugs) are prohibitively expensive and the lack of lar mutations or chromosome abnormalities may not be as important Hematology 2013 517 as careful attention to 5-azacytidine or decitabine dose and schedule (frequency of drug administration) is a critical determinant of the to ensure that it is optimal for individual S-phase fractions and therapeutic effect (Mechanisms #1). In my practice, I do not favor pharmacogenetics (Figures 1, 2, Mechanisms #5, “Next steps”). The historical limits of cytotoxicity, the favorable 28 intergroup study ). As described in the “Next steps” section, we are therapeutic index of the epigenetic effects of 5-azacytidine/ actively examining alternative schedules of administration of decitabine and the evolution of their clinical regimens in this decitabine. The objective of therapy is antimetabolite cytotoxic effects (Mechanisms #1). As Therefore, permitting the weekend to interrupt 7- or 10-day drug discussed in the “Schedule” section below, exposure time is an administration schedules is not in principle discouraged and has not important determinant of therapeutic effect; therefore, I readily been shown to be detrimental. It should be noted that an objective of treatment is to suppress the malignant clone (even if it is by noncytotoxic means11). FDA-approved decitabine dosages of 20-45 mg/m2/d nadiring of counts is to be expected, with nadirs approximately 2 stray into cytotoxic territory. Therefore, in my practice, supported weeks into each cycle and lowest in cycle 2 or later.
Systemic signs of Hymenectomy is performed under general anesthesia pyrexia and tachycardia may develop along with with the patient in the lithotomy position and the nausea aldactone 25 mg with amex blood pressure er, vomiting and bowel upset discount aldactone 25 mg fast delivery arteria pudenda externa, and may be bladder emptied. Clean and disinfect the vulva be- confused with acute pyelonephritis or appendici- fore incision. Abdominal palpation may reveal signs of bulging membrane and the accumulated blood peritonism such as guarding and rebound tender- is allowed to drain. Once drainage has ceased, an- ness with abdominal distention. Gynecological other incision at right angles is made to form a cross examination may reveal a tender smooth swelling (cruciate incision); the edges of the skin flaps are next to the uterus, often associated with cervical removed and any bleeding points are secured by motion tenderness. Postoperatively, vulval hy- On transvaginal ultrasound a tubo-ovarian mass giene is important and vaginal douches must be may be seen with cystic lesions and mixed echo- avoided. Free fluid may be seen in the pouch of tered as prophylaxis. If duplex Doppler is available, reduced Septum excision Transverse vaginal septae are much blood flow in the ovarian artery and vein may be 12 more difficult to deal with and require specialist demonstrated. You should however try to untwist the applying general or spinal anesthesia and drape ovary and allow some time for re-establishment of and disinfect as for vaginal hysterectomy. An adnexectomy should be performed • Insert broad specula and hand them over to your as described in Chapter 11 if necrosis of the tissue is assistant after visualizing the septum. Cryptomenorrhea (hidden menstrual flow) • Pick up the loose end of one half and dissect the septum from vaginal mucosa using a knife. In a non-pregnant patient presenting with lower • Continue in the same way with the other half. Cryptomenorrhea is more common in no other material is available, but keep in mind women after female genital mutilation. The pain that the stitches will become firm with time and characteristically is cyclic, occurring at around the may hurt your patient. Do NOT apply a running time of the expected menses and is due to progres- stich as this will distort the vagina and cause pain. Dyspareunia and urinary signs such as urinary retention are possible associated complica- 17 Urinary tract infection tions. A bluish membrane may be found on inspec- Characteristic clinical features of urinary tract tion in the vulva and a mass bulging into the vagina infection include urgency, dysuria, frequency and 61 GYNECOLOGY FOR LESS-RESOURCED LOCATIONS suprapubic pain and tenderness9. Systemic symp- Speculum examination will most likely be nor- toms are usually slight or absent and the gyneco- mal, but bimanual palpitation may show cervical logical examination will be normal. Urine motion tenderness and a tender adnexal region and microscopy, culture and sensitivity testing demon- uterus as the right adnexa may be involved in the strating significant bacteriuria help establish diagno- inflammation as well. Oral antibiotics of choice include co-trimoxazole other conditions such as PID, and ectopic gestation (Septrin), ciprofloxacin and amoxiclav9. On physical and Nephrolithiasis (ureteric stone) gynecological examination findings are usually Ureteric stones lead to pain due to distention and localized to the right lower quadrant but tend to be muscular contraction of the urinary tract against bilateral in PID or adnexitis. Patients present with severe and col- out tubo-ovarian mass but the differential diagnosis icky pain that may radiate from the loin to the can often only be made during operation. There may be sweating, restlessness and a frequent urge to micturate with only a small The patient has usually been ill for some days with amount of urine passed7,9. The abdomen is usually moderately dis- A stone is evident on renal ultrasound or plain tended with generalized tenderness and guarding or X-ray of the abdomen. Intravenous urography is rigidity which may be most marked in the lower diagnostic if the plain films are negative for stones. A plain X-ray may show gas under the dia- Pyelonephritis phragm but often diagnosis is only confirmed at surgery. The four quadrant peritoneal wash may In a patient with pyelonephritis, onset of pain is yield bile-stained peritoneal fluid in doubtful cases. There is adequate parenteral nutrition and other supportive manifestation of systemic symptoms: fever, chills, measures. Judicious surgical intervention is now nausea and vomiting. Tenderness and guarding are 7 7,9 the standard therapy. Urine examination may show pus cells and or- Acute intestinal obstruction ganisms. The main symptoms are colicky abdominal pain, Appendicitis constipation, vomiting and/or abdominal disten- tion.
Differential effects of quetiapine buy discount aldactone 100mg hypertension guidelines jnc 7, olanzapine and risperidone on glucose metabolism: a 24-week study in schizophrenia discount aldactone 25 mg on-line blood pressure readings chart. Byerly MJ, Marcus RN, Tran Q-V, Eudicone JM, Whitehead R, Baker RA. Effects of aripiprazole on prolactin levels in subjects with schizophrenia during cross-titration with 6 risperidone or olanzapine: analysis of a randomized, open-label study. Canuso C, Carothers J, Dirks B, Zhu Y, Schreiner A K-GC. A double-blind placebo- controlled trial comparing paliperidone er and quetiapine in patients with a recent acute 5 exacerbation of schizophrenia. Medication satisfaction in schizophrenia: A blinded- initiation study of paliperidone extended release in patients suboptimally responsive to 2 risperidone. Asenapine versus olanzapine in patients with predominant, persistent negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Long-term treatment with asenapine versus olanzapine in subjects with persistent negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Clozapine combined with different antipsychotic drugs for treatment resistant schizophrenia. Crespo-Facorro B, Rodriguez-Sanchez JM, Perez-Iglesias R, et al. Neurocognitive effectiveness of haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine in first-episode psychosis: a 6 randomized, controlled 1-year follow-up comparison. Cognitive effectiveness of olanzapine and 2 risperidone in first-episode psychosis. Cognitive effects of antipsychotic drugs in first- 5 episode schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder: A randomized, open-label clinical Atypical antipsychotic drugs Page 227 of 230 Final Report Update 3 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Exclusion Excluded trials code trial (EUFEST)": Correction. Cognitive effects of antipsychotic drugs in first- episode schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder: a randomized, open-label clinical trial 2 (EUFEST). The effect of antipsychotic medication on sexual function and serum prolactin levels in community-treated 6 schizophrenic patients: results from the Schizophrenia Trial of Aripiprazole (STAR) study (NCT00237913). A pilot observational crossover study of QTc interval changes associated with switching between olanzapine and risperidone. Discontinuation of quetiapine from an NIMH-funded trial 5 due to serious adverse events. Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in first-episode schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder: an open randomized clinical trial World Psychiatry. Olanzapine long-acting injection: a 24-week, randomized, double-blind trial of maintenance treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Neurocognitive effects of antipsychotic medications in patients with chronic schizophrenia in the CATIE Trial. Effects of olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone on neurocognitive function in early psychosis: a randomized, double-blind 52-week 2 comparison. A multicentre, randomized, naturalistic, open-label study between aripiprazole and standard of care in the management of community-treated schizophrenic patients Schizophrenia Trial of Aripiprazole: (STAR) study. European 6 Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists. Kinon BJ, Stauffer VL, Kollack-Walker S, Chen L, Sniadecki J. Olanzapine versus aripiprazole for the treatment of agitation in acutely ill patients with schizophrenia. Kolotkin RL, Corey-Lisle PK, Crosby RD, Kan HJ, McQuade RD. Changes in weight and weight-related quality of life in a multicentre, randomized trial of aripiprazole versus 6 standard of care. European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists. A comparison study on the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and risperidone in 6 the treatment of schizophrenia. Predictors of persistence on treatment with olanzapine and other atypical antipsychotic medications in patients with schizophrenia; 5 2010.
Type II error: A conclusion that there is no evidence that a treatment works order aldactone 100 mg on-line blood pressure chart man, when it actually does work (false-negative) generic aldactone 100mg on line heart attack 70 blockage. Validity: The degree to which a result (of a measurement or study) is likely to be true and free of bias (systematic errors). Variable: A measurable attribute that varies over time or between individuals. Variables can be • Discrete: taking values from a finite set of possible values (e. Washout period: [In a cross-over trial] The stage after the first treatment is withdrawn, but before the second treatment is started. The washout period aims to allow time for any active effects of the first treatment to wear off before the new one gets started. Drugs for fibromyalgia 67 of 86 Final Original Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Appendix C. Black box warnings Drug names Boxed Warnings Suicidality and Antidepressant Drugs Antidepressants increased the risk compared to placebo of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Black box warning that is issued for Norpramin is Anyone considering the use of NORPRAMIN or listed in the right column. Other drugs such as any other antidepressant in a child, adolescent, or Tofranil-PM , Aventyl , Pamelor , Pristiq , young adult must balance this risk with the clinical Effexor , Effexor XR , Celexa , Luvox CR, Paxil , need. Short-term studies did not show an increase Paxil CR , Pexeva , Cymbalta , Savella , in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants Remeron , Remeron SolTab have similar black , compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; box warnings. Luvox Zoloft , Prozac , Prozac ™ there was a reduction in risk with antidepressants weekly and Lexapro have very specific warnings compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. Patients of all ages who are started additional boxed warnings for use in smoking on antidepressant therapy should be monitored cessation treatment, but that has not been appropriately and observed closely for clinical specified here as well. Families and caregivers should be advised of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. NORPRAMIN is not approved for use in pediatric patients. These reactions are estimated to occur in 1 to 6 per 10,000 new users in countries with mainly Caucasian populations, but the risk in some Asian countries is estimated to be about 10 times higher. Studies in patients of Chinese ancestry have found Black box warning for Tegretol is listed in the right a strong association between the risk of developing column. Tegretol XR , Carbatrol and Equetro SJS/Ten and the presence of HLA-B*1502, an have similar black box warnings. Patients with ancestry in genetically at-risk populations should be screened for the presence of HLA-B*1502 prior to initiating treatment with Tegretol. Patients testing positive for the allele should not be treated with Tegretol unless the benefit carefully outweighs the risk. Drugs for fibromyalgia 68 of 86 Final Original Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Drug names Boxed Warnings Aplastic Anemia and agranulocytosis Aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis have been reported in association with the use of Tegretol. Data from a population-based case control study demonstrate that the risk of developing these reactions is 5-8 times greater than the general population. However, the overall risk of these reactions in the untreated general population is low, approximately six patients per one million population per year for agranulocytosis and two patients per one million population per year for aplastic anemia. Although reports of transient or persistent decreased platelet or white blood cell counts are not uncommon in association with the use of Tegretol, data are not available to estimate accurately their incidence or outcome. However, the vast majority of the cases of leukopenia have not progressed to the more serious conditions of aplastic anemia or agranulocytosis. Because of the very low incidence of agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia, the vast majority of minor hematologic changes observed in monitoring of patients on Tegretol are unlikely to signal the occurrence of either abnormality. Nonetheless, complete pretreatment hematological testing should be obtained as a baseline. If a patient in the course of treatment exhibits low or decreased white blood cell counts, the patient should be monitored closely. Discontinuation of the drug should be considered I any evidence of significant bone marrow depression develops.
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